References Guideline

I. Text Citations

All references in the text and notes must be according to APA specified by the authors’ last names and date of publication together with page numbers for direct quotations from print sources.

Do not use ibid., op. cit., infra., supra. 

Note the following for the style of text citations:

1. If the author’s name is in the text, follow with year in parentheses:

... Author Last Name (year) has argued ...

2. If the author’s name is not in the text, insert last name, comma and year:

... several works (Author Last Name, year) have described ...

3. For direct quotations, the page number follows the year, preceded by ‘p.’ (not a colon):

... it has been noted (Author Last Name, year, p. XXX) that ...

4. Where there are two authors, always cite both names, joined by ‘and’ if within running text and outside of parentheses; joined by an ampersand (&) if within parenthetical material, in tables and in captions, and in the reference list:

… Author Last Name and Author Last Name stated that…

... it has been stated (Author Last Name & Author Last Name, year) ...

5. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the citation occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (not italicized and with a period after ‘al’) and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph:

… Author Last Name, Author Last Name, Author Last Name, and Author Last Name (year) found that…[Use as first citation in text.] [Use ampersand if within parentheses.]

... Author Last Name et al. (year) found that [Use as subsequent citation thereafter.]

6. When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (not italicized and followed by a period after ‘al’) and the year for the first and subsequent citations. 

In the reference list, however, provide the surnames and initials for up to and including the first seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipses and then add the last author’s name, for example:

Shackley, H., Powell, J., Leeming, K., Read, A., Goggins, A., Westwood, K., ... Ray, D. R. (2010). Article title. Journal, 20, 220−260.

7. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and ‘et al.’.

For example:

If you have entries for the following references:

… Smith, Jones, Clark, Kumar, Green, and Goggins (2000)

… Smith, Jones, Miller, Green, Powell, and Goggins (2000)

In the text, you would cite them, respectively, as:

… Smith, Jones, Clark, et al. (2000) and Smith, Jones, Miller, et al. (2000) 

8. If two or more references by the same author are cited together, separate the dates with a comma (in chronological order):

... the author has stated this in several studies (Author Last Name, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2006) ...

9. If there is more than one reference to the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) and year, insert the suffixes ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc. after the year of publication and repeat the year. The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where these kinds of references are ordered alphabetically by title (of the article, chapter, or complete work):

... it was described (Author Last Name, 2000a, 2000b, 2000c) ...

10. List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname, separated by semicolons:

... and it has been noted (Clark, 2001; Miller, 2001) ...

Exception: You may separate a major citation from other citations within parentheses by inserting a phrase, such as ‘see also’ before the first of the remaining citations, which should be in alphabetical order:

... (Miller, 2001; see also Clark, 2000; Smith, 2000) ...

11. When names of groups (e.g. government agencies, universities, etc.) serve as authors, these are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. However, some group authors can be spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter:

First text citation:

... (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2000) ...

Subsequent text citation:

... (NIMH, 2000) ...

12. When a work has no author as such, cite in the text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter or web page and italicize the title of a journal, book, etc.:

... it was stated (“Title of publication”, year) that ...

13. Citations from personal communications are not included in the reference list; cite in text only, giving the initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible:

... (Initial and Last Name of Person, personal communication, April 28, 2000).

II. Reference List

A. General

1. Check that the list is in alphabetical order by surname of the first author (treat Mc and Mac alphabetically and literally, not as if they were all spelled ‘Mac’).

2. Names should be in the initial cap then lower case.

3. Where several references have the same author(s), do not use ditto marks or em dashes; the name must be repeated each time.

4. Last Names containing de, van, von, De, Van, Von, de la, etc. should be alphabetized according to the language of origin. 

5.  Names containing Jr or II should be listed as follows:

Author Last Name, Initials, Jr. (year).

Author Last Name, Initials, II (year).

6.  When ordering several works by the same first author:

  • Single-author references arranged in date order, the earliest first;
  • Single-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname
  • Two or more author references in alphabetical order according to the second author’s last name, or if the second author is the same, the last name of the third author, and so on
  • References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first:

Brown, J. (2003)

Brown, T. R., & Yates, P. (2003)

Brown, W. (2002)

Brown, W. (2003a)

Brown, W., Hughes, J., & Kent, T. (2003)

Brown, W., & Jones, M. (2003)

Brown, W., & Peters, P. (2002)

7.  Check that all periodical data are included – volume and page numbers (complete span, not shortened), publisher, place of publication, etc.

Only give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number if each issue of a journal begins on page 1.

8.  The date of retrieval of online material is no longer required, only the URL; see example below.

9.  A word about publisher locations in book references: for all countries outside the US, the country as well as the city of publication should be supplied, e.g. ‘London, UK’, ‘Oxford, UK’, ‘Toronto, Canada’, etc. For the US, the state abbreviation should be included after the city, except when the name of the state is part of the publisher’s name, e.g. ‘New York, NY: Cambridge University Press’; ‘New York: State University of New York’; ‘Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press’.

10. Check the journal for example.

B. Reference Styles

Journal article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Namevol no.(issue no.), xx–xx. Retrieved from journal homepage URL if no DOI or doi: 10.xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Miller, A. J., Thomson, F., & Callagher, D. (1998). Affluence in suburbia. Suburbian Studies, 12(1), 9–12.

Journal, Organization as an author

American Psychological Association. (year). Article title. Name of Journal, volume(issue if available), pages.

Newspaper Article

Freud, S. (year, month day). Article title. Name of Newspaper,  column/section if available, p. or pp. if available. Retrieved from journal homepage URL


Editor, A., & Editor, B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of conference: Subtitle of conference, Location, Date (Year, Month Day). Place of publication: Name of Publisher (if it is published)

Author(s) of paper. Title of paper. In: Name of conference or title of conference, conference dates (Year, Month Day), place of conference (City, Country).


Author, A. A. (1994). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Miller, A. J., Thomson, F., & Callagher, D. (1998). Affluence in suburbia. London, UK: BL Books.

Books with more than 7 authurs

Neu, J., Lakoff, R., Kamin, J., Green, P., Lessig, L., Brody, E., … Pritzker, T. (year). Book title (edition if given). Where published: Publisher.

Chapter in book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Book title (pp. xxx–xxx). Location: Publisher.

Miller, A. J., Thomson, F., & Callagher, D. (1998). Epping case study. In C. Carter (Ed.), Affluence in suburbia (pp. 200–250). London, UK: BL Books.

Edited Book

Editor(s) of book. (Ed(s).). (year). Book title by Author(s) of book (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pages of book). Where published: Publisher.

Translated book or journal by yourself

Author(s) of book (year). [use brackets for book tilte]. Where published: Publisher.

Author(s) of journal (year). [use brackets for Article title]. Name of Journal, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from journal homepage URL or DOI

Translated book (published)

Author(s) of book (year of translation). [use brackets for book tilte]. (M. Cook, Trans.). Where published: Publisher. (Original work published 1950).


Smith, A. T. (year). Book title. Where published: Publisher. Retrieved from URL of book


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis ((Un)published doctoral dissertation [OR] (Un)published master's thesis). Academic Institution, City, State [OR] Country.


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994).  Online article title. Online Journalxx, xxx–xxx. Retrieved from http://xxxx.xxxx.xx.xx/xxxx/xxxxxx/

Miller, A. J., Thomson, F., & Callagher, D. (1998). Epping case study. Suburban studies, 12, 1–9. Retrieved from http://xxxx.xxxx.xx.xx/xxxx/xxxxxx/